In other words, “Manual testing is a testing technique in which test cases are manually tested without using automated tools.”
In this, test cases are tested by the tester without using automated tools.
The main purpose of manual testing is to identify bugs, errors and defects in the software application.
Manual testing is the oldest technique to find bugs in any software.
We should always do manual testing before doing automated testing. This testing ensures that the software is working or not.
This testing takes a lot of effort and time. But it provides bug-free software. To do this testing, there should be knowledge of manual testing techniques.
Advantage of Manual Testing:-
· It finds bugs and defects in the software, which makes the software bug free.
· In this, test cases are designed during the testing phase.
· In this, it is also ensured that the defects which have been found have been fixed by the developer. After this, the fixed defect is tested again.
· This testing checks the quality of the system and provides a better product to the customer.
· In this, the visual components such as – text, layout etc. can be easily accessed by the tester.
· The value of its operation is very less because we do not use any tool in it.
· In this, small changes can be made immediately without having to write and execute the code.
Types of Manual Testing:-
1. Black Box Testing
2. White Box Testing
3. Unit Testing
4. System Testing
5. Integration Testing
6. Acceptance Testing
Black Box Testing –
In black-box testing, the tester is not aware of the internal code and structure of the software. In this, the functionality of the software is checked based on the need of the customer. This testing is completed by the test engineer. In this, the tester does not see the code of the software, so it is called black-box testing.
White Box Testing –
In White Box testing, the tester is aware of the internal code and structure of the software. This testing is done by the developer and every line of code is checked in it. In this the tester sees the code of the software, hence it is called white box testing.
Unit Testing –
In unit testing, each unit of the software is tested. Its main purpose is to validate each unit of the software so that the software works correctly. Unit testing is performed by the developer in the coding phase. This testing is very important because it finds bugs in the early phase of the development cycle, which saves cost and time.
System Testing –
System testing means "to test the system thoroughly." In this, the entire software product is validated. The purpose of this testing is to evaluate the end-to-end system specifications.
It is performed by a professional tester. There are more than 50 types of system testing. Following are some of its types: -
· Load testing
· Regression testing
· Recovery testing
· Migration testing
· Functional testing
Integration Testing –
In Integration Testing, each unit of software is combined and tested in a group. There are many units in software and they are coded by different programmers.
The main purpose of this testing is to test that when these units are integrated together, there is no defect in them.
Acceptance Testing –
Acceptance Testing is a testing technique in which it is determined whether the software meets the requirements specified by the user or not. Its main purpose is to evaluate the business requirements. There are the following types of acceptance testing:-
· Alpha testing
· Beta testing
· User acceptance testing
How to perform Manual Testing?
There are the following steps to perform this: -
· Firstly, the tester understands all the documents related to the software so that he can select the testing areas.
· After that the tester analyzes the requirement documents.
· Test cases are developed based on the requirement document.
· All test cases are manually tested using white box and black box testing.
· If a bug is found in it, then the development team is told about it.
· After this the development team fixes these bugs and the software is given to the testing team to test again.
Manual Testing tools
Following are the testing tools used in this:-
· Selenium QTP
· Center (ALM)